Lightning Rod (charismatic attraction) Think Lady Gaga. It wasn’t just about wearing a dress made of meat. It was about doing the unexpected. Love her or hate her, you never forget her.
Heretical (redefining perspective) Amazon and Virgin are examples of challengers that don't want to change the rules. They want to change the game. They look over the horizon and discover what people will need in the future and bring it to them ahead of schedule.
Foster Rejection (niche) This challenger personality is about resisting the masses in order to attract the most ardent fans. Think United Colors of Benetton or Tough Mudder.
Compulsive Servitude (over deliver) FedEx changed the way we send things. W Hotels learns the smallest desires of its guests so they can be granted without request. These iconic brands were built on over-delivering to the extent that it became the definition of their brands.
Constant Evolution (category neutral) Companies that are inventors at heart look for ways to demonstrate their core values in new product categories. This has led Apple to create watches and Shinola to make bikes.